Eicosanoids both negatively and positively modulate glucose-induced insulin secretion. Although the identity of the positive modulator is uncertain, the negative modulator appears to be prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), because 1) glucose stimulates PGE2 synthesis from islet cells; 2) exogenous PGE2 inhibits glucose-induced insulin secretion; 3) inhibition of β-cell PGE2 synthesis increases glucose-induced insulin secretion, and this increase is reversed by exogenous PGE2; and 4) PGE2 binds to specific β-cell receptors that are coupled to inhibitory regulatory components of adenylate cyclase whose activation decreases cAMP levels. Other possible regulatory effects of eicosanoids on islet function include modulation of islet blood flow and its immune responsiveness. From these considerations, the perspective is offered that eicosanoids are pluripotential modulators of islet function.