We previously demonstrated that conventional tracer methods applied to euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic glucose clamps result in substantially negative estimates for the rate of endogenous glucose production, particularly during the first half of 180-min clamps. We also showed that addition of tracer to the exogenous glucose infusate resulted in nonnegative endogenous glucose production (Ra) estimates. In this study, we investigated the underlying cause of negative estimates of Ra from conventional clamp/tracer methods and the reason for the difference in estimates when tracer is added to the exogenous glucose infusate. We performed euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (300-μU/ml) clamps in normal dogs without (cold GINF protocol, n = 6) or with (hot GINF protocol, n = 6) tracer (D-[3-3H]glucose) added to the exogenous glucose infusate. In the hot GINF protocol, sufficient tracer was added to the exogenous glucose infusate such that arterial plasma specific activity (SAa) did not change from basal through the clamp period (P > .05). In the cold GINF studies, plasma SAa fell 81 ± 2% from the basal level by the 3rd h of clamping. We observed a significant, transient, positive venous-arterial difference in specific activity (SAv-SAa difference) during the cold GINF studies. The SAv-SAa difference reached a peak of 27 ± 6% at 30 min and diminished to a plateau of 7 ± 1% between 70 and 180 min. We also observed a positive but constant SAv-SAa difference (4.6 ± 0.2% between 10 and 180 min) during the hot GINF studies. The observations of a difference between hot and cold GINF endogenous Ra estimates and a positive but transient SAv-SAa difference during the cold GINF studies are consistent with the interpretation that a portion of the underestimation of Ra is due to insufficient mixing of endogenous and exogenous glucose for the one-compartment, fixed-pool volume model to be applicable. Alternatively, our results suggest that the one-compartment, fixed-pool volume model of glucose kinetics is insufficient to account for the complex dynamics of labeled and unlabeled glucose during euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps. Improved mixing through addition of tracer to the exogenous glucose infusate or improved modeling by allowing for a variable-pool volume appears to improve the accuracy of the tracer methods; however, these approaches remain to be validated. The constant positive SAv-SAa difference observed during the hot GINF studies is consistent with the interpretation that an additional contributor to underestimation of endogenous Ra is apparent isotope discrimination. Whether this apparent discrimination is due to a true isotope effect or contamination of the tracer infusate remains to be determined.
Modeling Error and Apparent Isotope Discrimination Confound Estimation of Endogenous Glucose Production During Euglycemic Glucose Clamps
Diane T Finegood, Richard N Bergman, Mladen Vranic; Modeling Error and Apparent Isotope Discrimination Confound Estimation of Endogenous Glucose Production During Euglycemic Glucose Clamps. Diabetes 1 August 1988; 37 (8): 1025–1034. https://doi.org/10.2337/diab.37.8.1025
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