Four successful cases of pregnancy after combined pancreas-kidney transplantation at four different centers are summarized. The techniques used for the pancreas transplantations were duct obstruction in one patient and enteric exocrine diversion in two patients; in all three patients the insulin delivery was to the systemic circulation. In one patient exocrine diversion was to the stomach and the vascular anastomosis to the splenic vessels, thus accomplishing portal insulin delivery. Immunosuppression consisted of cyclosporin and prednisolone in two patients; cyclosporin alone in one patient; and cyclosporin, azathioprine, and prednisolone in one patient. In all a cesarean section was performed, due to deteriorating renal function in two patients, a fall in fetal growth in one patient, and fear of inducing pancreas-graft pancreatitis during normal delivery in one patient. In all four women, perfect metabolic control was retained throughout the pregnancy, and despite the proximity of the pancreas graft to the growing uterus in three of the women, the pancreas grafts did not suffer any damage during the pregnancy. However, in one patient the pancreas graft was lost in acute rejection after delivery. This pancreas had functioned normally for 3 yr before this occasion. Of the offspring, one was completely normal, one had a bilateral cataract, and two were small for date. The latter two subsequently showed normal growth development. At follow-up at 3, 5, 7, and 28 mo, ail kidney grafts and three of the pancreas grafts remained functional. We conclude that after combined pancreas-kidney transplantation, successful conception and pregnancy can be obtained. Despite reduced islet mass (segmental grafts), normal metabolic control can be retained throughout the pregnancy. However, the risks of complications related to kidney- or pancreas-graft function are considerable and must be emphasized in each case in which pregnancy is considered.

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