Glucose transport by facilitated diffusion is mediated by a family of tissue-specific membrane glycoproteins. At least four members of this gene family have been identified by cDNA cloning. The HepG2-type transporter is the most widely distributed of these proteins. It provides many cells with their basal glucose requirement for ATP production and the biosynthesis of sugar-containing macromolecules. The liver-type transporter is expressed in tissues from which a net release of glucose can occur and in β-cells of pancreatic islets. A genetic defect resulting in reduced activity of this transporter could hypothetically lead to the two principal features of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and relative hypoinsulinemia. The adipocyte/muscle transporter is expressed exclusively in tissues that are insulin sensitive with respect to glucose uptake. This protein is an excellent candidate for a highly specific genetic defect predisposing to insulin resistance.
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Perspectives in Diabetes| January 01 1990
Family of Glucose-Transporter Genes: Implications for Glucose Homeostasis and Diabetes
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Mike Mueckler, Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110.
Mike Mueckler; Family of Glucose-Transporter Genes: Implications for Glucose Homeostasis and Diabetes. Diabetes 1 January 1990; 39 (1): 6–11. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.39.1.6
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