A cohort of 132 well-documented White Welsh non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) subjects were genotyped for 5 restriction-fragment–length polymorphisms (RFLPs) at the insulin-receptor gene (IRG) locus and a polymorphic locus 5' to the insulin gene. There was no significant difference in RFLP frequencies between the NIDDM subjects and a group of 87 matched White control subjects. Paired haplotype analysis of the IRG RFLPs suggested a difference between NIDDM and control groups for the endonuclease combinations Bgl II-Rsa I and Bgl II-Xba I. Analysis of implied haplotypes defined by the endonucleases Bgl II, Rsa I, and Xba I revealed one haplotype to be more prevalent in the NIDDM group; whereas, another haplotype was associated with the control group (P < 0.02). Subset analysis within the NIDDM cohort compared the metabolic response of NIDDM subjects with the differing IRG haplotypes to a standard meal tolerance test. Both groups showed equivalent basal and postprandial glucose excursions, but one group revealed a significantly exaggerated plasma insulin response compared with the other (P < 0.05). This may reflect the influence of genetic variation at the IRG locus on insulin sensitivity in patients with NIDDM.

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