Measurements were made of the levels of metabolic intermediates and activities of enzymes of the glycolytic route, pentose phosphate pathway, and polyol pathway in livers and kidneys of NOD mice. A 34% decrease in UDP-glucose, a 40% decrease in glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and fructose-6-phosphate, and a 75% decrease in fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (F2,6P) were found in the livers of NOD mice. The fall in the level of F2,6P (the important regulator of glycolysis) is accompanied by a 20% reduction in the activity of phosphofructokinase. These changes are in agreement with previously reported liver depletion of glycogen and reduced synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids in the diabetic state. In the kidney, the increase in hexokinase activity is consistent with increased levels of G6P and glycogen content of kidney in diabetes. The decreased level of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate was reported to be a regulator of kidney growth in the initial period of diabetes but can still be found in NOD mice 6 wk after development of hyperglycemia. The reported changes are similar to those seen in alloxan- or streptozocin-induced diabetic animals, but certain changes are more marked in NOD mice, especially those directed to increase nucleic acid and protein synthesis in the diabetic kidney.

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