To monitor the severity of metabolic disturbances during gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), some risk factors existing at the time of diagnosis must be considered, including age of the pregnant women, early gestational age at diagnosis, high fasting blood glucose level, high HbA1c or fructosamine levels, or high amniotic fluid insulin level. The degree of OGTT abnormality will also influence the therapeutic approach, although the insulin response to the glucose challenge seems to be of little discriminating value. Effectiveness of the treatment can be appreciated by self-monitoring of blood glucose, although the practical precision of these measures and their necessary repetitions will limit clear-cut evaluation of borderline cases. HbA1c and fructosamine are of little help because of lack of sensitivity and time delay between changes in blood glucose and associated glycosylated protein changes. Whether other parameters such as amino acids, growth factors, or related compounds are more specifically linked to the physiopathology of GDM complications remains to be established but would help in monitoring GDM metabolic disturbances in the future. Meanwhile, prophylactic insulin treatment may still constitute a pragmatic approach, taking into account possible and poorly appreciated drawbacks from overtreatment, e.g., maternal hyperinsulinism and chronic hypoglycemia.

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