Obstetric complications recorded prospectively were assessed retrospectively in 150 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 305 control subjects matched for age, parity, and ethnicity. Intensive diet therapy and self-monitoring of capillary blood glucose were used to obtain postprandial euglycemia; 22% of GDM subjects required insulin. GDM and control subjects were grouped by body mass index to detect any influence of maternal prepregnancy weight on outcome. Polyhydramnios, preterm labor, and pyelonephritis were not more frequent in GDM, but hypertension without proteinuria (7.3 vs. 3.3%) and preeclampsia (8 vs. 3.9%) were more frequent in GDM. The frequency of hypertensive complications in GDM was not totally attributable to being overweight. Abnormalities of labor, birth trauma, and fetal macrosomia were not more common in GDM; 6.7% of the infants of mothers with GDM weighed >4200 g at birth compared with 3.6% of control infants (NS), and 10% were large for gestational age and sex compared with 6.6% of control infants (NS). Despite this, cesarean delivery was more common in GDM (35.3 vs. 22%, P < 0.01), mostly due to significantly more cesarean births without labor.

This content is only available via PDF.