Insulin action in vivo varies widely in nondiabetic Pima Indians. Not all of this variance is attributable to individual differences in obesity, physical fitness, sex, or age, and after correcting for these co-variates, measures of insulin action aggregate in families. Insulin action at maximally stimulating insulin concentrations has a trimodal frequency distribution, particularly among obese individuals. This is consistent with the hypothesis that a codominantly inherited autosomal gene, unrelated to obesity, determines MaxM in the population. Preliminary sib-pair linkage analyses indicated the possibility of linkage between MaxM and the GYPA/B locus (encoding the MNSs red cell surface antigens) on chromosome 4q. To confirm and extend these findings, 10 additional loci on 4q were typed in 123 siblings and many of their parents from 46 nuclear families. The results indicate significant (P < 0.001) linkage of the FABP2 and ANX5 loci on 4q with MaxM, and of FABP2 with fasting insulin concentration. No linkage was found between the 4q markers and obesity. Our findings indicate that a gene on 4q, near the FABP2 and ANX5 loci, contributes to in vivo insulin action in Pima Indians.

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