Altogether, 102 patients were randomized to intensified conventional treatment (ICT) (n = 48) or standard treatment (ST) (n = 54). After 7.5 years, 89 patients remained, and it was shown that microangiopathy was retarded by the lower blood glucose concentrations seen in the patients in the ICT group. HbA1c was reduced from (means ± SE) 9.5 ± 0.2% to 7.1 ± 0.1% in the ICT group and from 9.4 ± 0.2% to 8.5 ± 0.1% in the ST group (P < 0.001). Of the patients, 4 in the ICT group and 3 in the ST group died. Mortality was predicted by albuminuria, the amplitude of the sural nerve action potential, and the test of arm blood flow during contraction of the contralateral hand (sympathetic nerve function) at baseline (P < 0.05). Weight increased by 4.4 ± 1.1 kg in the ICT group and 1.8 ± 0.7 kg in the ST group (P = 0.05). Atherosclerosis, measured with digital pulse plethysmography, was ∼ the same in the groups at baseline and after five years. In each group, 3 patients had myocardial infarctions, and 2 from each group had ketoacidosis once. There was a mean of 1.1 episodes per patient and per year of serious hypoglycemia in the ICT group and 0.4 episodes per patient and per year in the ST group. No adverse incidents or accidents were observed in either group, and there were no differences between the groups with regard to cognitive function measured with a battery of tests. retarded the microvascular complications, caused some weight gain and an almost threefold increase of the frequency of serious hypoglycemia, but brain function did not deteriorate.

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