The effects of glucose concentration on D-glucose oxidation and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) supply were studied during exposure of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The activation of glucose oxidation via the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), induced by exposure of cells to 200 μmol/l H2O2 for 1 h, was reduced by 50% (P < 0.01) in cells cultured for 5–7 days in 33 mmol/l D-glucose (HG) versus those cultured in 5.5 mmol/l D-glucose without (NG) or with (HR) 27.5 mmol/l D-raffinose. The intracellular NADPH content in HG cells, but not in NG or HR cells, was decreased by 42% (P < 0.01) by exposing cells to 200 μmol/l H2O2. The decrease in NADPH was dependent on D-glucose concentration in the medium and was prevented in glutathione (GSH)-depleted cells. The latter observation suggests that the decrease in NADPH is associated with activation of the GSH redox cycle. In the presence of 200 μmol/l H2O2, lactate release into the medium, NADH/NAD ratio, and phosphofructokinase activity in HG cells were 56, 53, and 68% greater, respectively, than in the NG group, which indicates that inhibition of glycolysis by H2O2 is less marked in the HG group compared with NG group. These results indicate that activation of the PPP was impaired in endothelial cells cultured under conditions of high-glucose and oxidative stress, resulting in a decreased supply of NADPH to various NADPH-dependent pathways, including the GSH redox cycle.

This content is only available via PDF.