Several mechanisms are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. They include biochemical, hemodynamic, and hormonal factors, all of which have an important role in the development of diabetic retinopathy. These factors are not independent of each other, but rather they interact and together are responsible for the well-known lesions of vascular occlusion, microaneurysms, hemorrhages' hard exudates, and eventually new vessel formation.

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