Insulin lispro [Lys (B28), Pro (B29) human insulin] is a rapidly absorbed analog that has diminished tendency to self-associate. In four open-label, 1-year-long international randomized trials, we contrasted the immunogenicity of insulin lispro versus regular human insulin (RHI) in patients previously treated with insulin who had IDDM or NIDDM. Using a self-blank subtraction assay, we assessed sera for the presence of insulin-specific antibodies (ISA), insulin lispro-specific antibodies (LSA), and cross-reactive antibodies (CRA). Basal insulin needs were provided either with human ultralente (UL) or NPH insulins. After 2 to 4 weeks of therapy with RHI plus UL or RHI plus NPH, 50% of patients were randomly assigned to begin insulin lispro or continue on RHI. At baseline, few pretreated patients had LSA (0–4%) and ∼ 10% had ISA, whereas 41–45% of patients with IDDM and 23–27% of patients with NIDDM had CRA (IDDM vs. NIDDM, P < 0.001). Within studies, no significant differences were noted over time in ISA, LSA, or CRA attributable to the type of short-acting insulin. When data were pooled, inconsistent changes were noted in ISA and LSA (LSA were greater in NIDDM vs. IDDM at baseline, P = 0.001, and ISA were greater in IDDM vs. NIDDM at 6 months, P = 0.007). Significant levels of CRA were more common in IDDM at all times (P < 0.001, P = 0.022, and P = 0.002 at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months, respectively). For patients receiving insulin lispro, no significant changes occurred in antibody status among IDDM and NIDDM patients throughout the study (became positive, remained positive, became negative, or remained negative). IDDM patients were more likely to develop or maintain CRA levels (P = 0.008 vs. NIDDM), whereas antibody levels were comparable among positive individuals. No evidence was noted that insulin lispro differs in immunogenicity from RHI in previously treated IDDM and NIDDM patients.

This content is only available via PDF.