Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are known to have potent increases of insulin sensitivity. Because peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), a receptor for TZDs, is mainly expressed in adipocytes, we tried to search the TZD-targeted genes in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes. By the mRNA differential display method, one band repressed by troglitazone was obtained, which corresponded to the partial sequences of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) gene. Troglitazone dramatically decreased SCD1 mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Pioglitazone also repressed the SCD1 mRNA expression, whereas WY-14,643 had no apparent effect. Both troglitazone and pioglitazone raised the composition (weight percentage) of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), and stearic acid (C18:0), but lowered the composition of the Δ9-cis desaturated fatty acids such as myristoleic acid (C14:l, Δ9), palmitoleic acid (C16:l, Δ9), oleic acid (C18:l, Δ9), and linoleic acid (C18:2, Δ9,12). These results indicate that TZDs repress SCD1 activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via downregulating SCD1 enzyme gene expression.

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