Troglitazone, an oral antidiabetic agent with antioxidant properties, has previously been shown to increase the resistance of LDL to oxidation in vitro and in vivo in healthy volunteers. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in 29 patients with NIDDM, we tested the effect of troglitazone (200 mg once daily) on the resistance of LDL to oxidation and on circulating levels of preformed lipid hydroperoxides and the adhesion molecule Eselectin. Resistance of LDL to oxidation was assessed by measuring 1) fluorescence development induced by copper treatment (lag phase), and 2) amount of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) generated by incubation with umbilical vein endothelial cells. At 8 weeks, the lag phase was increased by 23% (P < 0.01 by analysis of covariance [ANCOVA]) in the patients receiving troglitazone (n = 18) compared with the group receiving placebo (n = 11). At the same time, TBARS were 3.63 ± 0.10 nmol/1 (vs. 5.32 ± 0.10 nmol/1 in the placebo group, P = 0.009), LDL hydroperoxide concentration was reduced from 1.48 ± 0.03 to 1.19 ± 0.03 ng/mg (no change in the placebo group, P < 0.01), and plasma E-selectin levels decreased from 56.5 ± 2.33 to 43.7 ± 1.77 μg/l (no change in the placebo group, P < 0.01). In NIDDM, troglitazone may slow down the development of atherosclerosis by modifying LDLrelated atherogenic events.

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