Incubation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with C2- and C6- ceramides (N-acetyl- and N-hexanoylsphingosines) but not dihydro-C2-ceramide increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake in the absence of insulin. This effect was inhibited by PD 98059, LY 294002, and rapamycin, which block the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, and ribosomal S6 kinase, respectively. Long-term increases in PI 3-kinase activity associated with insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) increased GLUT1 and GLUT4 concentrations in plasma membranes. This together with increased GLUT1 (but not GLUT4) synthesis explains the increase in non-insulin-dependent glucose uptake. C2-ceramide inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake after 2 h by decreasing insulin-induced translocation of GLUT1 and GLUT4 to plasma membranes. This occurred when there was no increase in basal glucose uptake or decrease in activation of IRS-1 or PI 3-kinase. Incubation for 24 h with tumor necrosis factorα (TNF-α) but not C2-ceramide decreased the concentration and insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in this experimental system. Cell-permeable ceramides mimic some effects of TNF-α, especially in stimulating basal glucose uptake. We identified a site for inhibiting insulin-stimulated glucose uptake that is downstream of PI 3-kinase. Our work provides further mechanisms for the effects of TNF-α and ceramides in increasing non-insulin-dependent glucose uptake and decreasing insulin-stimulated uptake in vivo.
Effects of Cell-Permeable Ceramides and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α on Insulin Signaling and Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes
- Views Icon Views
- PDF LinkPDF
- Share Icon Share
Chuen-Neu Wang, Lori O'Brien, David N Brindley; Effects of Cell-Permeable Ceramides and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α on Insulin Signaling and Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes. Diabetes 1 January 1998; 47 (1): 24–31. https://doi.org/10.2337/diab.47.1.24
Download citation file: