The hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 act on the pancreas to potentiate glucose-induced insulin secretion (enteroinsular axis). These hormones (incretins) are rapidly hydrolyzed by the circulating enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DP IV) into biologically inactive NHg-terminally truncated fragments. This study describes the effect of inhibiting endogenous DP IV with a specific DP IV inhibitor, isoleucine thiazolidide (Ile-thiazolidide), on glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in the obese Zucker rat. In initial studies, the specificity of Ile-thiazolidide as an inhibitor of incretin degradation was determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption7sol;ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. These results showed that inhibiting DP IV activity with Ile-thiazolidide blocked the formation of NH2-terminally truncated GIP and GLP-1. Oral administration of Ile-thiazolidide resulted in rapid inhibition of circulating DP IV levels by 65% in obese and lean Zucker rats. Suppression of DP IV levels enhanced insulin secretion in both phenotypes with the most dramatic effect occurring in obese animals (150% increase in integrated insulin response vs. 27% increase in lean animals). Ile-thiazolidide treatment improved glucose tolerance in both phenotypes and restored glucose tolerance to near-normal levels in obese animals. This was attributed to the glucose-lowering actions of increasing the circulating half-lives of the endogenously released incretins GIP and, particularly, GLP-1. This study suggests that drug manipulation of plasma incretin activity by inhibiting the enzyme DP IV is a valid therapeutic approach for lowering glucose levels in NIDDM and other disorders involving glucose intolerance.
Improved Glucose Tolerance in Zucker Fatty Rats by Oral Administration of the Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitor Isoleucine Thiazolidide
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Raymond A Pederson, Heather A White, Dagmar Schlenzig, Robert P Pauly, Christopher H S McIntosh, Hans-Ulrich Demuth; Improved Glucose Tolerance in Zucker Fatty Rats by Oral Administration of the Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitor Isoleucine Thiazolidide. Diabetes 1 August 1998; 47 (8): 1253–1258. https://doi.org/10.2337/diab.47.8.1253
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