We conducted a community-based case-control study of African-American men and women in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. The allele frequencies of the Gly972Arg variant of the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) gene and the Ala54Thr variant of the fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene were compared in 992 normal control subjects and three patient groups: 1) 321 type 2 diabetic individuals, 2) 260 severely obese individuals, and 3) 258 markedly hyperinsulinemic individuals without diabetes. Allele frequencies of Gly972Arg IRS-1 and Ala54Thr FABP2 were 0.07 and 0.22, respectively; there were no differences in allele or genotype frequencies between patients and control subjects for either gene variant. In weighted linear regression of all patients and control subjects, the presence of the IRS-1 gene variant was associated with a 0.85 (0.42) kg/m2 higher BMI (P = 0.04). In addition, individuals with at least one IRS-1 Arg972 allele and two FABP2 Thr54 alleles had a BMI of 33.3 (7.9) kg/m2, compared with 30.0 (6.3) kg/m2 for those with neither allele (P = 0.05). These results suggest that in African-Americans, these variants in the IRS-1 and FABP2 genes are not associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes, severe obesity, or marked hyperinsulinemia, but that their independent and joint effects may be associated with small increases in BMI.

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