The effect of the thiazolidinediones (TZDs) darglitazone and troglitazone on beta3-adrenergic receptor (AR) expression was studied in cultured cell lines representing several tissues. After 24 h of exposing HIB-1B brown adipocytes to 30 micromol/l darglitazone or 20 micromol/l troglitazone, beta3-AR mRNA levels were reduced by 75%. This effect was significant within 1 h of exposure to a maximal dose of these drugs, with the full effect obtained within 10 h. The darglitazone ID50 was approximately 10 nmol/l, similar to the Kd of TZDs binding to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma). These drugs also decreased beta3-AR mRNA in 3T3-F442A white adipocytes, but not in SK-N-MC cells, which lack PPAR-gamma2. A luciferase reporter gene containing 1.4 kb of 5' flanking sequence of the mouse beta3-AR was transiently transfected, with or without PPAR-gamma2, in SK-N-MC cells. The vigorous expression of luciferase driven by the beta3-AR gene sequence was inhibited by TZDs in a PPAR-gamma2-dependent manner. The half-lives of gamma3-AR precursor RNA and mRNA were short, approximately 40 and approximately 100 min, respectively, and remained unaffected by TZD treatment. Exposure of HIB-1B cells to 30 micromol/l darglitazone was associated with reduced beta3-AR mRNA levels, as well as decreased response of uncoupling protein 1 to norepinephrine + propranolol (a beta1 beta2-AR antagonist) or the specific beta3-AR agonist CL 316, 243. Both the beta3-AR mRNA level and response to these stimuli fully recovered by 24 h of removing the drug, indicating that the beta3-AR protein and its coupling to adenylyl cyclase rapidly followed the changes in mRNA. Thus, TZDs can rapidly reduce beta3-AR expression at the transcriptional level, acting through PPAR-gamma2. The rapid turnover and responses of beta3-AR to perturbations, along with numerous other factors reported to regulate its expression, suggest a tight control of beta3-AR and function. Lastly, leptin being the only other known gene suppressed by TZDs, the present studies support a concerted lipogenic effect of these drugs.

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