To determine whether impaired Akt (protein kinase B or rac) activation contributes to insulin resistance in vivo, we examined the expression, phosphorylation, and kinase activities of Akt1 and Akt2 isoforms in insulin target tissues of insulin-resistant obese Zucker rats. In lean rats, insulin (10 U/kg i.v. x 2.5 min) stimulated Akt1 activity 6.2-, 8.8-, and 4.4-fold and Akt2 activity 5.4-, 9.3-, and 1.8-fold in muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, respectively. In obese rats, insulin-stimulated Akt1 activity decreased 30% in muscle and 21% in adipose tissue but increased 37% in liver compared with lean littermates. Insulin-stimulated Akt2 activity decreased 29% in muscle and 37% in liver but increased 24% in adipose tissue. Akt2 protein levels were reduced 56% in muscle and 35% in liver of obese rats, but Akt1 expression was unaltered. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity associated with insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 or phosphotyrosine was reduced 67-86% in tissues of obese rats because of lower IRS-1 protein levels and reduced insulin receptor and IRS-1 phosphorylation. In adipose tissue of obese rats, in spite of an 86% reduction in insulin-stimulated PI3K activity, activation of Akt2 was increased. Maximal insulin-stimulated (100 nmol/l) glucose transport was reduced 70% in isolated adipocytes, with a rightward shift in the insulin dose response for transport and for Akt1 stimulation but normal sensitivity for Akt2. These findings suggest that PI3K-dependent effects on glucose transport in adipocytes are not mediated primarily by Akt2. Akt1 and Akt2 activations by insulin have a similar time course and are maximal by 2.5 min in adipocytes of both lean and obese rats. We conclude that 1) activation of Akt1 and Akt2 in vivo is much less impaired than activation of PI3K in this insulin-resistant state, and 2) the mechanisms for divergent alterations in insulin action on Akt1 and Akt2 activities in tissues of insulin-resistant obese rats involve tissue- and isoform-specific changes in both expression and activation.

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