Pancreastatin (PST), a chromogranin A-derived peptide, has counterregulatory effects on insulin in the hepatocyte and the adipocyte, suggesting a possible role in insulin resistance. The mechanism of PST action on glucose and lipid metabolism is typical of a calcium-mobilizing hormone and involves a receptor Gq/11 protein-phospholipase C (PLC)-beta pathway. In the rat adipocyte, PST inhibits insulin-mediated glucose transport, glucose utilization, and lipid synthesis, and it has a lipolytic effect but stimulates basal and insulin-stimulated protein synthesis. We have also recently studied the PST receptor-effector system in adipocyte membranes. To further investigate the mechanisms of PST effect on insulin action, we studied the cross-talk of PST with insulin signaling in the rat adipocyte. We found that PST inhibits insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the membrane, which may explain the reported inhibition of glucose transport. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the activated insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, and p60-70 was also blunted, preventing their association with p85 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and their activity. The mechanism of this inhibition involves the activation of the "classical" protein kinase C isoforms and the serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor and IRS-1. On the other hand, PST activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling module and enhances the effect of insulin. This pathway may account for the described effect of PST on protein synthesis. In conclusion, PST seems to inhibit the insulin-stimulated PI3K pathway in the adipocyte, whereas it activates the MAPK pathway. These data provide some clues to the PST cross-talk with insulin signaling that may explain the PST effects on glucose metabolism and protein synthesis.

This content is only available via PDF.