We studied whether there is an association between the single nucleotide polymorphism c.533A>C (K121Q) in the glycoprotein PC-1 gene and features of the metabolic syndrome in case-control and intrafamily association studies in 922 subjects from Finland and Sweden. No difference was observed in the Q allele frequency between control subjects and type 2 diabetic subjects (12.9 vs. 15.1%). The QK genotype was associated with higher fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentrations than the KK genotype in type 2 diabetic patients (P <0.001) and their relatives (P <0.05). A permutation test of siblings discordant for the QK and KK genotypes also showed that the nondiabetic siblings with the QK genotype had higher FPG (6.1 +/- 2.0 vs. 5.4 +/- 0.6 mmo/l, P <0.001) and fasting insulin (7.0 +/- 3.6 vs. 4.8 +/- 2.6 mU/l, P <0.05) concentrations than the carriers of the KK genotype. In addition, diabetic siblings with the QK genotype had higher systolic blood pressure (147.0 +/- 18.0 vs. 140.0 +/- 18.7 mmHg, P <0.05) and higher fasting (9.9 +/- 3.0 vs. 8.8 +/- 2.8 mmol/l, P <0.05) and 2-h plasma glucose (17.3 +/- 8.5 vs. 12.9 +/- 4.2 mmol/l, P < 0.05) concentrations than the diabetic carriers of the KK genotype. The present study shows that, although the Q allele of the human glycoprotein PC-1 gene is associated with surrogate measures of insulin resistance, it may not be enough to increase the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes.

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