The above-cited article has been retracted by the American Diabetes Association, the publisher of Diabetes. This article was previously the subject of an expression of concern in the April 2016 issue of the journal (Diabetes 2016;65:1121–1122. DOI: 10.2337/db16-ec04. PMID: 27208021). As noted in the April 2016 expression of concern, the American Diabetes Association asked the corresponding author’s institution, the University of Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil), to investigate concerns related to the possible duplication of several images presented in this article.
The American Diabetes Association did not receive a response from the university, but the lead author of the article, who is also listed as a guarantor of the study, provided a point-by-point response to address the issues reported in the expression of concern. After reviewing the author’s response, the American Diabetes Association’s Panel on Ethical Scientific Programs (ESP) maintains that the following instances of potential duplication affect the overall reliability of the study:
The IB:Tub strip in Fig. 1B (LH) appears to have been previously published, with horizontal rotation, in the following article:
∘Rocha et al. Clin Cancer Res 2011;17:3993–4005. DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-2243. PMID: 21543517 (Fig. 4D, IB:mTOR strip)
The IB:Tub strip in Fig. 1G (LH) appears to have been previously published, with horizontal rotation, in the following articles:
∘Ropelle et al. PLoS Biol 2010;8:e1000465. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000465. PMID: 20808781 (Fig. 8H, IB:α-tubulin, lanes 3–5)
∘Flores et al. Gastroenterology 2012;143:741–753.e1–e4. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2012.05.045. PMID: 22677195 (Fig. 2D, IB:β-tubulin, lanes 2–4)
In her response to the ESP, the lead author reported that the IB:Tub strip in Fig. 1G (LH) may have been republished in the following International Journal of Cardiology article and that the image was indeed republished in the following American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism and Journal of Physiology articles:
∘Barbosa et al. Int J Cardiol 2013;167:2983–2988. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.08.050. PMID: 22989604 (Fig. 1B, IB:eNOS, lanes 3–5)
∘Chiarreotto-Ropelle et al. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2013;305:E649–E659. DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00272.2013. PMID: 23880311 (Fig. 5B, IB:α-tubulin, lanes 3–5)
∘Souza Pauli et al. J Physiol 2014;592:1325–1340. DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2013.264002. PMID: 24396063 (Fig. 3B, IB:β-actin, lanes 3–5)
The IB:Tub strip in Fig. 6B (Arc) appears to have been previously published in the following articles:
∘Rocha et al. Clin Cancer Res 2011;17:3993–4005. DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-2243. PMID: 21543517 (Fig. 4B, IB:p53, lanes 2–5)
∘Flores et al. Gastroenterology 2012;143:741–753.e1–e4. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2012.05.045. PMID: 22677195 (Fig. 3E, IB:pAKT, with horizontal rotation)
The IB:Tub strip in Fig. 6B (PVN) appears to be a duplicate, with size and contrast adjustments, of the IB:pIRβTyr1162/1163 strip of Fig. 2A in the following 2010 PLOS Biology article:
∘Ropelle et al. PLoS Biol 2010;8:e1000465. DOI: 10.1371//journal.pbio.1000465. PMID: 20808781
Since the publication of the April 2016 expression of concern, the ESP has learned of additional issues involving this article. These issues have recently been reported to the lead author, the corresponding author, and the university:
Bands 1–4 and 6 of the IB:Tub strip in Fig. 1B (LH) appear to be duplicates, with horizontal rotation, of bands 2–5 and 7 of the IB:IR strip in Fig. 7C in the following 2011 article by Oliveira et al.:
∘Oliveira et al. Diabetes 2011;60:784-796. DOI: 10.2337/db09-1907. PMID: 27208023
In addition, this image appears to have been previously published, with horizontal rotation, as bands 3–8 in the Total Akt strip in Fig. 2I in the following 2009 article by Prada et al.:
∘Prada et al. Diabetes 2009;58:2910-2919. DOI: 10.2337/db08-0506. PMID: 19696185
On the basis of its review of the lead author’s response and the additional concerns described above, the ESP believes that the study as a whole is unreliable and that the only responsible course of action for updating the status of Diabetes 2013;62:137–148 is to issue a full retraction. The American Diabetes Association, the publisher of Diabetes, has approved the Panel’s recommendation.
Diabetes is a member journal of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (publicationethics.org). As such, the editors of the journal and the ESP refer to COPE’s guidelines and recommendations when reviewing such matters.