Gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with an increased proinflammatory state in the placenta, which affects fetal development and offspring´s health. We have previously found that pregestational mild diabetes in Wistar rats (F0) programs GDM in the adult female offspring (F1). Our aim was to treat this F1 with a diet enriched in olive oil to address the ability of this treatment to prevent both excessive matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) levels and reduced PPARgamma levels in the placenta, associated to the proinflammatory state.

Methods: Mild pregestational diabetes was induced by neonatal streptozotocin administration (90mg/kg). Pregestational diabetic female rats and controls (F0) were mated with control males, and their adult female offspring (F1) mated with control males. F1 rats were fed a standard diet or a diet supplemented with 6% olive oil during pregnancy. On day 21 of pregnancy, maternal plasma and the placenta were evaluated.

Results: The olive oil treatment in the F1 pregnancy did not prevent maternal or fetal hyperglycemia in the pregnant offspring of pregestational diabetic rats. Maternal supplementation with olive oil reduced maternal triglyceridemia in GDM rats (21%, p<0.05) compared to GDM rats fed the standard diet. The placenta from GDM rats showed increased MMP2 and CTGF levels compared to controls (26%, p<0.and 37%, p<0.001, respectively), alterations prevented by the maternal treatment with olive oil. PPARgamma levels were reduced in GDM placentas treated and untreated with the olive-oil diet compared to controls (32% and 35% respectively, p<0.05).

Conclusions: Although the maternal diet enriched in olive oil was not able to prevent GDM induction or reduced PARgamma placental levels, it prevented maternal hypertriglyceridemia and exerted anti-inflammatory effects in the placenta from GDM rats, thus likely benefiting the fetal development.


D.L. Gomez Ribot: None. E. Capobianco: None. C.P. Levieux: None. D. Fornes: None. A. Jawerbaum: None.

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