Free fatty acid (FFA) is correlated with fetal growth during pregnancy and with neonatal fat mass in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, there are few studies between FFA level and postpartum glucose metabolism in women with GDM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between FFA level at mid-pregnancy and postpartum glucose intolerance in women with GDM. We enrolled 769 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM from February 2009 to October 2016. FFA levels (fasting and postprandial 2-h) were measured during 24-32 gestational weeks and 75-g OGTT was performed at 6-12 weeks after delivery. High FFA was defined by more than the median level of FFA at mid-pregnancy. Postpartum glucose intolerance was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 100 mg/dL or 2-h plasma glucose (2-h PG) ≥ 140 mg/dL. Mean age was 33.1 years and mean pre-pregnancy BMI was 22.4 kg/m2. The prevalence of postpartum glucose intolerance was 48.0% (n = 369). Although postprandial 2-h FFA level and FFA difference (between fasting and postprandial 2-h FFA) were not significantly different between two groups, women with postpartum glucose intolerance had higher fasting FFA level at mid-pregnancy than those with normal glucose tolerance (733.7 μEq/L vs. 700.6 μEq/L, P = 0.049). Compared to women with low fasting FFA, women with high fasting FFA had higher postpartum glucose intolerance (51.8% vs. 44.1%, P = 0.033). After adjustment for maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, family history of diabetes, FPG, and lipid measures (total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol), women with high fasting FFA were 1.47 times (95% CI 1.07-2.01) more likely to have postpartum glucose intolerance than those with low fasting FFA. In women with GDM, high fasting FFA level at mid-pregnancy is associated with elevated risk of postpartum glucose intolerance.
K. Kim: None. S. Kim: None. Y. Cho: None. S. Park: None.