Background: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at increased risk for prevalent coronary artery disease (CAD) and incident major adverse cardiac events (MACE) such as cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Prediction of risk in those with DM may be challenging. Using unbiased proteomics we recently described biomarker panels to predict prevalent CAD (HART-CAD) and incident MACE (HART-CVE; both Prevencio, Kirkland, WA) in unselected patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography. In this study, we sought to compare accuracy of these panels in patients with and without DM.
Methods: The HART-CAD panel includes 2 clinical variables (male sex and prior PCI) and 4 biomarkers: adiponectin, apolipoprotein CI, kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM 1), and midkine. The HART-CVE panel includes 4 biomarkers (amino-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide, KIM 1, osteopontin, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1). These panels were derived in 167 DM and 482 non-DM patients; performance of each was validated in a second cohort of patients (N=278) with and without DM.
Results: In patients with DM, the HART-CAD panel had excellent performance for prediction of coronary stenosis ≥ 70%, with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.81 (p<0.001), sensitivity 85%, specificity 69%, positive predictive value (PPV) 90%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 58% for detection of CAD, results comparable to those without DM. HART-CVE was highly predictive of incident 1 year MACE in those with DM: AUC of 0.80 (p=0.002), sensitivity 78%, specificity 69%, PPV 47%, and NPV of 90%, again, comparable to those without DM. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, an elevated HART-CVE score predicted shorter time to first MACE (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Previously described multivariate proteomic biomarker panels effectively predict prevalent CAD and risk for incident MACE in at-risk patients with DM.
S. Shrestha: None. C.P. McCarthy: None. N.E. Ibrahim: None. R. van Kimmenade: None. H. Gaggin: Research Support; Self; Roche Diagnostics Corporation, Portola. Consultant; Self; Roche Diagnostics Corporation, Amgen Inc., Ortho clinical. Other Relationship; Self; EchoSense, Radiometer. R. Mukai: None. C.A. Magaret: Consultant; Self; Prevencio. G. Barnes: Employee; Self; Prevencio. R.F. Rhyne: None. J. Januzzi: Research Support; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.. Board Member; Self; Jana Care Inc.. Research Support; Self; Prevencio.