Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not known. We conducted a secondary analysis of longitudinal data from the DPPOS, the follow-up study of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a randomized trial of diabetes prevention that assigned participants to placebo, metformin, or lifestyle intervention. This analysis included overweight and glucose-intolerant men (n=889) and women (n=1281) not using exogenous sex hormones who had urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio [ACR] < 30 mg/g and normal estimated glomerular filtration ratio [eGFR] ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2.

Sex hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEAS], dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, estradiol, estrone, and sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG]) were measured at baseline. CKD was defined as incident low eGFR and/or albuminuria ACR ≥ 30 mg/g. eGFR and ACR were measured annually over 11 years of DPPOS follow-up. Multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for eGFR and log-ACR, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, blood pressure, insulin resistance, high-density lipoprotein, C-reactive protein, and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and calcium channel blockers at baseline.

At baseline, the mean (SD) of eGFR was 94 (15) ml/min/1.73 m2, and the median (IQR) of ACR was 4.5 (3.3-7.6) mg/g. During the follow-up period, 187 men (24.6%) and 263 women (24.2%) had incident albuminuria and 136 men (17.9%) and 123 women (11.3%) had incident low eGFR. Fifty-four (7.1%) of men and 43 (3.9%) of women had both abnormalities. Among men, higher SHBG was associated with lower risk of low eGFR (pooled hazard ratio [HR] per SD, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73 [0.57, 0.9], p=0.01) and lower risk for CKD (pooled HR per SD 95% CI: 0.78 [0.64, 0.95], p=0.01). No significant associations were observed among women.

We conclude that among overweight glucose-intolerant men, higher SHBG was associated with reduced risk of CKD.


C. Kim: None. A. Ricardo: None. E.J. Boyko: None. C.A. Christophi: None. M. Temprosa: Other Relationship; Self; Merck KGaA. K. Watson: None. X. Pi-Sunyer: None. R. Rastogi Kalyani: None. D. Research Group: None.

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