Early detection can prevent morbidity associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD). ASK is a 4-year program with the goal to screen Denver metro-area children for pre-symptomatic T1D and CD, increase public awareness of these diseases, and provide evidence for universal screening. We are reporting first-ever prevalence data for pre-symptomatic T1D and CD in the U.S. general population children aged 2-17 y.
In 2017, ASK approached ∼15,000 children for consent, screened 5090 with results available for 4915. Study participant age, sex, and race/ethnicity closely reflected Denver’s general population; 4% had a T1D first-degree relative (FDR). Standard radiobinding assays (RBA) and more specific electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays for autoantibodies to insulin, GAD, IA-2, ZnT8 and transglutaminase (TGA) were used for screening and confirmation. Children with confirmed persistent islet autoantibodies received follow-up with education to prevent DKA, psychological support, and referrals to prevention trials or clinical services.
Multiple islet autoantibodies, predicting a 44% 5-y risk of T1D, were found in 32 (0.7%) children; of the 30 children retested to date, all remained persistently positive, six developed dysglycemia and one progressed to T1D. A single islet autoantibody, confirmed as high-affinity by ECL (29% 5-y risk of T1D), was found in 27 (0.5%); 18/19 children retested remained positive, 5 developed dysglycemia and one T1D. Over 86% (50/59) of the screening-detected children at risk for T1D did not have an FDR with T1D. The prevalence of TGA by both RBA and ECL was 2.2% and persistent in 74/76 (97%) children retested so far.
This novel population-based screening program for the two most common autoimmune diseases of childhood reports high prevalence of pre-symptomatic T1D and CD in Denver children. Prospective follow-up of screening-detected cases for clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness analysis will inform potential future universal screening.
C.R. Geno Rasmussen: None. M. Rewers: None. J. Baxter: None. K. Waugh: None. A. Steck: None. B.I. Frohnert: None. L. Yu: None. E. Liu: None.