Studies suggest that sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) induce hyperglucagonemia, which might counteract its glucose-lowering ability in type 2 diabetes. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, double-blinded, cross-over study, 12 middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes (BMI [mean (SD)]: 30.3 (5.8) kg/m2; HbA1c: 50.3 (10.5) mmol/mol) underwent four 4-hour liquid mixed meal tests preceded by single-dose administration: 1) Placebo, 2) SGLT2i (25 mg empagliflozin), 3) glucagon receptor antagonist (GRA) (300 mg LY2409021), and 4) GRA + SGLT2i. The SGLT2i and GRA individually lowered fasting plasma glucose (FPG) compared to placebo and the combination further decreased FPG. SGLT2i reduced postprandial glucose excursions as assessed by baseline-subtracted area under curve (bsAUC) whereas GRA increased bsAUC compared to placebo (Figure). The paradoxical GRA-induced increment in bsAUC was annulled by a potent SGLT2i-induced reduction of bsAUC during the combination of SGLT2i and GRA (Figure).

In conclusion, SGLT2i and GRA combined reduce FPG beyond their individual capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes, and in the context of GRA, SGLT2i’s beneficial effect on postprandial glucose excursions seems to be potentiated.
Disclosure

S. Haedersdal: None. A.B. Lund: Other Relationship; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S. H. Maagensen: None. E. Nielsen-Hannerup: None. J.J. Holst: Advisory Panel; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S. Board Member; Self; Zealand Pharma A/S. Speaker's Bureau; Self; Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., AstraZeneca. Research Support; Self; Danish Diabetes Academy, Novo Nordisk Foundation. Other Relationship; Self; Antag Therapeutics. Other Relationship; Spouse/Partner; Antag Therapeutics. F.K. Knop: Advisory Panel; Self; AstraZeneca. Consultant; Self; AstraZeneca. Research Support; Self; AstraZeneca. Speaker's Bureau; Self; AstraZeneca. Advisory Panel; Self; Eli Lilly and Company. Speaker's Bureau; Self; Eli Lilly and Company. Advisory Panel; Self; Amgen Inc.. Speaker's Bureau; Self; Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.. Advisory Panel; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S. Consultant; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S. Speaker's Bureau; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S. Consultant; Self; Amgen Inc.. Advisory Panel; Self; MedImmune, Sanofi. Consultant; Self; Sanofi. Research Support; Self; Sanofi. Speaker's Bureau; Self; Sanofi. T. Vilsbøll: None.

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at http://www.diabetesjournals.org/content/license.