The aim of the study: to determine the relationships between serum levels of adipokines, body fat distribution, density and ultrastructure of blood and lymphatic microvessels in subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) in type 2 diabetic subjects. We observed 125 patients with type 2 diabetes, including 82 subjects with obesity, and 30 lean nondiabetic individuals matched by sex and age. The concentrations of leptin, resistin, visfatin, adipsin, and adiponectin in the fasting serum were determined by Multiplex analysis. The fat mass and AT distribution was assessed by DEXA. The samples of subcutaneous abdominal AT were obtained with the knife biopsy in 25 patients and in 15 healthy subjects. Immunohistochemistry for biomarkers CD-34, podoplanin (D2-40) and LYVE-1 was applied to identify the blood and lymphatic microvessels. The volume density, numeral density and ultrastructure of blood and lymphatic microvessels were assessed. Patients with diabetes, as compared to control, had significantly higher levels of leptin (p=0.004), resistin (p<0.0001), adipsin (p<0.0001) and visfatin (p=0.0003). The concentrations of leptin and adipsin were associated with total, truncal, android and gynoid fat mass. The levels of resistin and adiponectin demonstrated relationships with gynoid fat mass only. In obese diabetic subjects an increase in the volume and numeral density of podoplanin-expressing lymphatic vessels was observed. The swelling of cytoplasm, mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum and reduced content of micropinocytic vesicles was revealed in lymphatic capillaries. The levels of leptin and adipsin, but not resistin and visfatin levels, correlated negatively with the numeral density of microvessels in subcutaneous AT (r=-0.53 and r=-0.32 respectively).
In conclusion, the levels of circulating adipokines in patients with type 2 diabetes are related in varying degrees with body fat distribution and AT microvessel density.
V. Klimontov: None. D. Bulumbaeva: None. N.P. Bgatova: None. I. Taskaeva: None. O. Fazullina: None. N. Orlov: None. A.I. Korbut: None. S. Savchenko: None. V. Konenkov: None.