Androgen deprivation therapy increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in men. We previously showed that male pancreatic β-cell specific androgen receptor knockout (βARKOMIP) mice develop glucose intolerance because AR potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) through increasing cyclic AMP (cAMP) production and amplifies the insulinotropic effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). We show that male βARKOMIP mice exhibit impaired intraperitoneal (IP) glucose tolerance- because of impaired IP-GSIS- without alteration in oral glucose tolerance, suggesting that AR amplifies the islet-derived, but not the gut-derived GLP-1 to potentiate GSIS. Using male insulin-secreting β-cell line 832/3 transduced with exchange factor directly activated by a cAMP (EPAC)-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensor, we observe that AR agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT) allows GLP-1, glucagon and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) to increase cAMP production above level of the individual hormones and to a similar level to forskolin control. Accordingly, DHT increases the insulinotropic effect of forskolin, GLP-1, glucagon and GIP in mouse islets. The insulinotropic effect of DHT is abolished using EPAC and PKA inhibitors as well as rapamycin indicating that DHT amplifies the effect of GPCRs coupled to adenylate cyclase and stimulates GSIS via a cAMP/PKA/EPAC pathway and activation of mTOR.


W. Xu: None. F.B. Ashford: None. D. Hodson: None. F. Mauvais-Jarvis: Research Support; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc..

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at