Background: Renal reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in mediating kidney injury in diabetes. Increasing evidence suggests that the pro-oxidant enzyme, Nox5 plays a significant role in human diabetic nephropathy (DN). Nox5 is present in humans and rabbits but not in mice or rats. Thus, there is a paucity of information about Nox5 in conventional animal models of DN. We examined the role of Nox5 in the insulin deficient diabetic Akita mice model using human inducible transgenic mice that express Nox5 selectively in endothelial cells (VEcad+Nox5+) or in mesangial cells (SM22+Nox5+). We also examined the endogenous expression of Nox5 in a high fat fed rabbit model of kidney disease.
Methods: At week 10 mice were culled and kidneys were removed for the assessment of structural damage as well as gene and protein expression of markers of inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative stress. Protein expression of Nox5 and its localization in glomerular cells (endothelial and mesangial cells) were examined in transgenic mice by immunostaining. We also examined expression of pro-fibrotic gene in high fat fed rabbits by next generation sequencing (NGS) and RT-PCR and renal injury by histochemistry.
Results: Expression of Nox5 was confirmed in glomerular endothelial and mesangial cells of transgenic mice. Diabetes induced increase in glomerulosclerosis, gene and protein expression of fibronectin and MCP-1 as well as nitrotyrosine were further increase in both diabetic Nox5 transgenic mice. Moreover, increased expression of Nox5 in high fat fed rabbits vs. normal diet fed rabbits was associated with increased expression of fibronectin, CTGF, collagen IV and VCAM-1 as well as increased mesangial expansion in the kidney.
Conclusions: These findings in both transgenic mice model (endothelial and mesangial cells) suggest that Nox5 plays a significant role in mediating renal injury in diabetes.
J.C. Jha: None. A. Dai: None. M.E. Cooper: Advisory Panel; Self; AbbVie Inc.. Research Support; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH. Advisory Panel; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.. Speaker's Bureau; Self; Eli Lilly and Company. Advisory Panel; Self; Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., AstraZeneca. Research Support; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S. Advisory Panel; Self; Novartis AG. R.M. Touyz: None. C. Kennedy: Research Support; Self; Prometic Life Sciences Inc.. K. Jandeleit-Dahm: None.