Aim: This study aims to assess the changes in water molecule diffusion properties during exercise of calf muscles in nondiabetes and individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD).

Methods: Twenty subjects were examined in three groups using a 3T MRI scanner: 5 participants without DM and PAD (WDM), 11 with DM only, and 4 with PAD only. We used a custom-made MRI compatible ergometer that allows a constant exercise load. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and percentage fiber length changes were calculated for medial, lateral gastrocnemius (MG, LG), and soleus (SOL) muscles.

Results: Among all muscles, MD increased during exercise in both patient groups with significant difference in the DM (P<0.05). Significant differences in FA and MD between WDM and PAD during exercise were observed in LG and SOL muscles (P<0.05). The DM group showed slightly greater fiber length reduction compared to other groups (P<0.05).

Conclusion: While FA and MD showed similar values in DM and PAD groups, fiber length changes appeared more in DM than that in PAD. It suggests that the severity of microstructure dysfunction may be equal to or greater in DM compared to PAD.


M. Edalati: None. C.J. Sorensen: None. M. Hastings: None. M.A. Zayed: None. M.J. Mueller: None. J. Zheng: None.

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