By 2034, the number of U.S. individuals with diabetes is predicted to increase from 23.7 to 44.1 million, and annual diabetes-related spending is expected to grow from $113 to $336 billion. Current healthcare systems are often not equipped to support the growing diabetes population, and many individuals are not achieving clinical targets necessary for preventing diabetes complications and for improving long-term survival. To address this need, an innovative, Chronic Care Model (CCM)-based care management program was developed that used clinical risk stratification, standardized decision support tools, RN + health coach + PCP team-based care, and a depression care manager. N=236 T1D and T2D (96%) patients (M age = 61.9 ± 11.4 years; 51% male) were enrolled at a San Diego clinic that includes diverse payors and an integrated PCP group. This care management program was previously shown to achieve significant improvements in cardiometabolic outcomes (HbA1c, LDL-c) and health care costs relative to usual care at 1-year. The present analysis evaluated effects on diabetes self-management (Summary of Diabetes Self Care Activities) and distress (Diabetes Distress Scale), and patients’ experience with CCM-based healthcare delivery components (Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care). Statistically significant improvements were observed in healthful eating (5 vs. 4 days/week), exercise (5 vs. 3), blood glucose monitoring (5 vs. 4), foot-checking (5 vs. 3), and diabetes distress (14% vs. 24% with moderate distress) over 12 months (ps < .05). Patients’ perceptions of follow-up/care coordination, support for patient activation and self-management, and delivery design also improved over this period (ps < .05). Taken together, this population-based care management program represents an approach that can improve clinical, behavioral, psychosocial and cost outcomes, and health care delivery experience for people with diabetes in the primary care environment.


A.L. Fortmann: None. J.L. Preciado: None. C. Walker: None. R. Morrisey: None. K. Barger: None. D. Mills: None. M. Robacker: None. A. Philis-Tsimikas: Research Support; Self; Dexcom, Inc.. Advisory Panel; Self; Dexcom, Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, Merck & Co., Inc., Novo Nordisk A/S, Sanofi. Research Support; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S, Sanofi, Mylan. Stock/Shareholder; Spouse/Partner; Novo Nordisk A/S. Employee; Spouse/Partner; Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.. Stock/Shareholder; Spouse/Partner; Esperion Therapeutics, Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.. Advisory Panel; Self; AstraZeneca.

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at