The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend daily consumption of 3 servings of low or non-fat dairy. However, the effects of dairy consumption and its fat content on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of higher consumption of full-fat and low/non-fat dairy on HbA1c, lipid profile and blood pressure (BP) in patients with T2D.
We enrolled 72 participants with uncontrolled T2D (mean age 59±8 years, 46% females) who were consuming <3 servings of dairy/day and randomized them into 3 groups. Group A was asked to incorporate ≥3 daily servings of full-fat dairy and group B to incorporate ≥3 daily servings of low/ non-fat dairy into their diet. Group C was asked to maintain the baseline dairy intake. Participants were counseled by a registered dietitian about maintaining their daily caloric intake and body weight. They were asked to maintain their usual doses of diabetes, antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Participants were evaluated at baseline, 3 and 6 months.
At baseline, mean T2D duration was 14±8 years, HbA1c 8.1±1.0%, body weight 92±17 kg, daily caloric intake 1885±600 kcal (43.4±7.0% carbohydrates, 37.8±5.5% fat, 13.0±2.8% saturated fat, and 18.1±3.6% protein), LDL-C 80±26 mg/dL, HDL-C 47±16 mg/dL, triglycerides 172±178 mg/dL, systolic BP 129±16 mmHg and diastolic BP 72±8 mmHg. There were no differences between groups in any of these parameters at baseline. At 6 months, percent calories from saturated fat increased by 3.7±0.8% in group A (p<0.0001), and decreased by 4.4±1.7% in group B (p=0.014). There were no differences in HbA1c, body weight, total caloric intake or percent calories from carbohydrates, lipid parameters or BP between groups.
This study shows that increasing consumption of dairy products to ≥3 servings/day, irrespective of fat content, has no effect on HbA1c, lipid profile or BP in patients with T2D.
A. Mottalib: None. J. Mitri: Research Support; Self; National Dairy Council, Kowa Pharmaceuticals America, Inc.. Research Support; Spouse/Partner; AbbVie Inc., Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Takeda Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc., Gilead Sciences, Inc.. Consultant; Spouse/Partner; Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Merck & Co., Inc., Biogen, AbbVie Inc.. V. Salsberg: None. S. Ashrafzadeh: None. T. Elseaidy: None. S. Tomah: None. K. Alsibai: None. N. Mahmoud: None. O. Hamdy: Research Support; Self; Abbott. Advisory Panel; Self; AstraZeneca. Consultant; Self; Merck & Co., Inc.. Research Support; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S. Stock/Shareholder; Self; Healthimation, LLC.. Consultant; Self; Sanofi-Aventis.