Objective: Gastrointestinal hormones play a key role in glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis.
Methods: A randomized cross-over study was used to test the effects of two energy- (600 kcal) and macronutrient-matched plant-based and processed-meat meals (41% carbohydrates, 19% protein, and 40% lipids) on glucose metabolism, plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones, and satiety in subjects with T2D (n=20), obese subjects (n=20) and healthy controls (n=20). Plasma concentrations of glucose, immunoreactive insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, GIP, amylin and PYY, along with satiety, were determined at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used for statistical analysis.
Results: An increase in stimulated secretion of immunoreactive insulin was observed in T2D and obese subjects (p=0.005, and p=0.045, respectively) after the plant-based meal. We observed an increase in stimulated secretion of C-peptide in all groups after the plant-based meal (p<0.001 for T2D, p=0.014 for obese subjects, and p=0.001 for healthy controls). An increase in postprandial concentrations of amylin was observed in T2D and healthy controls after the plant-based meal (p<0.001 for both groups). An increase in stimulated secretion of GLP-1 was observed in T2D obese subjects and healthy controls (p<0.001, and p=0.01, respectively) after the plant-based meal. A decrease in peak concentrations of GIP (at 60 min.), and an increase in peak concentrations of PYY, were observed in all groups after the plant-based meal. The participants in all groups reported greater satiety after the plant-based meal (p=0.004 for T2D, p<0.001 for obese subjects, and p<0.001 for healthy controls).
Conclusions: Our study suggests that plant-based meals may be effective in increasing stimulated secretion of GLP-1, insulin, amylin and PYY, as well as in promoting satiety.
M. Klementova: None. L. Belinova: None. M. Haluzik: None. R. Pavlovicova: None. M. Hill: None. T. Pelikanova: None. H. Kahleova: None.