Introduction: We assessed the effects of dapagliflozin, metformin or exercise on glucose metabolism in individuals with prediabetes.

Methods: 120 participants were randomized to 13 weeks of either: 1) dapagliflozin (DAP, 10 mg once daily); 2) metformin (MET, 1700 mg daily); 3) exercise (EXE, 5x30 min/week); or 4) control (CON, no treatment). Participants were tested at baseline and after 6 and 13 weeks of intervention with oral glucose tolerance tests with 0, 30, 60, 120 min samples performed at baseline and at 13 weeks. Treatments were stopped the day before the last visit (two days before in EXE). Intention-to-treat analyses were conducted (baseline-adjusted).

Results: 44% were men. At baseline, the median (Q1;Q3) age was 62 (54;68) years, BMI 30.8 (28.6;34.3) kg/m2, HbA1c 41 (39;43) mmol/mol (5.9 (5.7;6.1)%), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 5.6 (5.2;5.8) mmol/L, and fasting serum insulin (FSI) 72 (47;99) pmol/L. HbA1c decreased in DAP at 6 weeks (Table 1). All groups showed reductions of around 1 mmol/mol at 13 weeks. MET, and to a lesser extend DAP, decreased FPG. FSI was reduced by 19-25% in all treatment groups, except for EXE at 13 weeks. The iAUCglucose increased by 66% in MET, and iAUCinsulin decreased somewhat in DAP and EXE.

Conclusion: All treatments slightly improved HbA1c and fasting measures. Only DAP and EXE showed signs of improvements in postprandial glucose metabolism.


K. Færch: Research Support; Self; Ascensia Diabetes Care, AstraZeneca, Unilever. Stock/Shareholder; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S. M.B. Blond: None. H. Amadid: None. L.B. Nielsen: None. D. Vistisen: Stock/Shareholder; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S. K.K. Clemmensen: None. C.H. Pedersen: None. K. Karstoft: Employee; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S. M. Ried-Larsen: Other Relationship; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S. M.E. Jørgensen: Research Support; Self; Amgen Inc., AstraZeneca, Danish Diabetes Association, Sanofi-Aventis. Stock/Shareholder; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S.


Novo Nordisk Foundation; AstraZeneca

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at