Intrauterine exposure to gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with increased adiposity; however, not all exposed offspring exhibit excess adiposity, indicating that additional factors are involved. We examined whether higher diet quality in childhood and adolescence modifies the association between GDM exposure and adiposity outcomes. In 499 offspring (n=88 GDM-exposed), we assessed dietary intake (via food frequency questionnaire) and adiposity (BMI, waist-to-height ratio, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue [VAT, SAT], and subscapular-to-triceps skinfold ratio) at 6-12 and 12-19 years of age. Diet quality was estimated with the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). Linear mixed models were used to examine the association between GDM exposure and adiposity among those with higher (HEI≥60) versus lower (HEI<60) diet quality, adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, age, and pubertal status. Among those with lower diet quality, exposure to GDM was associated with increased adiposity for all outcomes (all p<0.05; Table). Among those with higher diet quality, there was no association between GDM exposure and adiposity outcomes (all p>0.05). Our results suggest that higher diet quality in childhood and adolescence may be a potential postnatal strategy for reducing adiposity among offspring exposed to GDM.
K.A. Sauder: None. T.A. Bekelman: None. K.K. Harrall: None. D.H. Glueck: None. D. Dabelea: None.
National Institutes of Health