Pediatric obesity is associated with clustered cardiometabolic risk and the future incidence of diabetes. However, few studies have determined the effect of pediatric obesity in Asia, where obesity is less common than in Western countries. Thus, we clarified whether metabolic risk factors are associated with weight status including slight overweight and underweight among Japanese adolescents. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 2241 Japanese adolescents (1180 boys) aged 13-14 years whose height, weight, HbA1c, blood pressure (BP), and serum lipids were measured. Participants were classified as underweight, normal weight, slightly overweight, overweight, or obese according to both the universal and Asian cutoffs of the International Obesity Task Force, which correspond to adult BMI cutoffs. The clustered cardiometabolic risk (Z-CMR) was estimated by summing standardized sex-specific Z scores of HbA1c, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C). Linear regression analysis showed that MAP (sex-specific Z score), non-HDL-C (sex-specific Z score), and Z-CMR were higher in the slightly overweight, overweight, and obese groups than in the normal weight group after adjusting for confounders. Compared with the normal weight group, the slightly overweight, overweight, and obese groups had significantly higher odds ratios (ORs) for high BP [OR = 1.38 (95% CI, 1.03-1.85); OR = 2.63 (1.77-3.91); and OR = 2.39 (1.57-3.64), respectively]. Compared with the normal weight group, underweight boys, but not girls, had a significantly lower OR for high Z-CMR [OR = 0.20 (0.05-0.84)]. Our results indicated that adolescents classified as slightly overweight had higher levels of BP, serum lipids (but not HbA1c), and clustered cardiometabolic risk than those classified as normal weight. This observation demonstrated that significant associations between weight status and cardiometabolic risk factors could be seen during adolescence even in East Asia.
S.Y. Morikawa: None. K. Fujihara: None. D. Ishii: None. R. Nedachi: None. M. Ishizawa: None. H. Ishiguro: None. Y. Matsubayashi: None. T. Yamada: None. S. Kodama: None. H. Sone: Research Support; Self; Astellas Pharma Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Daiichi Sankyo Company, Limited, Kowa Pharmaceutical Europe Co. Ltd., Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co., Ltd., Novo Nordisk Inc., Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Taisho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Teijin Pharma Limited.