Background and Aims: Periodontal disease (PD) has been considered as the sixth complication of diabetes (DM). It has also been suggested that PD may worsen glycemic control. The present study has been designed to establish correlation between periodontal health status with pubertal stage and metabolic control in type 1 diabetes (T1D).
Methodology: Oral hygiene index (OHI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were recorded in subjects with T1D (110) and healthy siblings (22). Duration, age, HbA1c and presence of microvascular complications was documented.
Result: GI (p=0.044) and PPD (p=0.013) was worse in the cases vs. the controls. Greater PPD (p=0.026) in cases vs. the controls in stage II-IV puberty was seen and both worsening GI (p=0.038) and greater PPD (p=0.027) in the cases vs. controls in stage V despite better OHI (p=0.040). Pubertal staging revealed no difference in any of the studied dental parameters in stage 1. A binary logistic regression model with age, HbA1c and duration of DM as independent continuous variables, detected HbA1c as a significant predictor of PD. HbA1c along with stage of puberty rather than duration of DM and chronological age were found as important predictor of PD. PD was significantly associated with markers of nephropathy and neuropathy. Both the PPD and GI were found to have significant positive correlation with vibration perception threshold and microalbuminuria in the cases. A positive correlation was observed between HbA1c levels and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) levels, p=0.010.
Conclusion: T1D was more likely to develop PD compared to healthy siblings. Onset and progression of puberty and poorer glycaemic control, rather than duration of DM was associated with greater risk of PD. PD was more likely to be associated with markers of microvascular disease.
P. Chakraborty: None. S. Ghosh: None.
Department of Science & Technology, Government of India, West Bengal; Research Society for the Study of Diabetes in India