Centenarians and their offspring appear to have a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to similarly aged controls. We determined the incidence of and potential risk factors for T2D among the offspring of probands and their spouses (mean age =60 years; SD=8 years), in the Long Life Family Study (LLFS), a multicenter cohort study of two-generation families with a clustering of healthy aging and exceptional survival. Incident T2D was defined as fasting serum glucose ≥126 mg/dl, or HbA1c of ≥6.5%, or self-reported with doctor diagnosis of T2D, or the use of antidiabetic medication during a mean follow-up 7.9 ± 1.1 years. Among nondiabetic offspring (n=1585) and spouses (n=495) at study entry, 58 (3.7%) and 19 (3.8%) developed incident T2D, respectively. By comparison, 5.1% of comparable aged nondiabetics developed T2D in the Framingham Offspring Study. At Visit 1, BMI, waist circumference, and fasting serum triglycerides were positively, whereas HDL-C and adiponectin were inversely associated with incident T2D among offspring in LLFS (all P<0.05 for all using logistic GEE with intra-family correlations). Similar associations were observed in their spouses (P<0.05 for all). Additionally, we observed that among spouses serum interleukin 6 and insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations were positively associated with incident T2D (P<0.05 for both). All associations were independent of age, sex, field center, alcohol intake, hours of walking, and BMI or waist circumference (in models with metabolic and inflammation biomarker predictors). The current study suggests that offspring of long-living individuals in the LLFS and their spouses may share a similar, low risk for developing T2D as compared to the general population. Our findings also raise the possibility that distinct risk factors may contribute to T2D risk among offspring of long-lived individuals compared to their spouses.


I. Miljkovic: None. R. Cvejkus: None. P. An: None. B. Thyagarajan: None. R. Boudreau: None. J.M. Zmuda: None.


National Institute on Aging

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