Background: Whether changes in consumption of sugary beverages or artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk has never been evaluated.
Objective: We evaluated the association of changes in sugary beverage and ASB consumption over a 4-year period with subsequent 4-year risk of T2D among U.S. women and men.
Methods: We followed-up 78,357 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (1986-2012), 82,937 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II (1991-2013) and 35,148 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2012). Beverage intakes were assessed using validated food frequency questionnaires every 4 years. Cox proportional regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for T2D regarding 4-year changes in beverage consumption, adjusted for initial beverage intake and BMI. Results of the 3 cohorts were pooled using an inverse variance-weighted, fixed-effect meta-analysis.
Results: During 2,849,389 person-years of follow-up, we documented 12,007 incident cases of T2D. Increasing sugary beverage intake by >0.5 serving/day over a 4-year period was associated with a 14% (95% CI: 7%, 21%) higher T2D risk compared with maintaining a stable consumption. Both beverages with added sugars (e.g., soft drinks) and 100% fruit juices were associated with higher T2D risk. Increasing ASB consumption by >0.5 serving/day was associated with a 19% (95% CI: 12%, 27%) higher T2D risk. Substituting ASB for sugary beverages was not associated with subsequent T2D risk (HR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.02). However, decreasing sugary beverage consumption and increasing water, coffee or tea intake by 1 serving/day was associated with a 3% to 11% lower risk of T2D.
Conclusion: Increasing consumption of sugary beverages or ASBs was associated with a higher risk of T2D compared with maintaining a stable consumption of these beverages. Substituting water, coffee or tea but not ASB for sugary beverages was associated with lower T2D risk.
J. Drouin-Chartier: Other Relationship; Self; Dairy Farmers of Canada. Y. Zheng: None. Y. Li: None. V. Malik: None. A. Pan: None. J.E. Manson: None. W.C. Willett: None. F. Hu: None.
National Institutes of Health (UM1CA186107, UM1CA176726, UM1CA167552, DK112940, HL60712, HL118264); Canadian Institutes of Health Research (BPF-156628)