Background: Among the modifiable risk factors, diet plays an important role in the risks and progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, few studies have examined this association in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) who are at a greater risk of developing ASCVD than nondiabetic (non-DM) controls.
Methods: We conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of data from CACTI study [n=1257; T1D: n=568; non-DM: n=689] collected between March 2000 and April 2002. Participants completed a validated food frequency questionnaire, a physical examination and fasting biochemical analyses (12h fast), and coronary artery calcification (CAC) was measured using electron beam computed tomography. At baseline, dietary patterns based on variations in food group intake were created with principal components analysis (PCA). Logistic regression was used to examine associations of dietary patterns with the CAC prevalence in a model adjusted for age and sex and stratified by diabetes status.
Results: Three dietary patterns were identified using PCA as follows: ‘fruits, veggies, meats, cereal’, ‘baked desserts’ and ‘convenience foods and alcohol’ patterns. At baseline, no significant associations of dietary patterns with CAC prevalence were observed. At year-6, ‘baked dessert’ pattern was significantly associated with increased risk of CAC (<0 vs. 0) in T1D [odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI: 2.05 (1.19, 3.51)], but not in non-DM [0.74 (0.51, 1.06)] when adjusted for age, sex and baseline total calories, as well as duration of diabetes for T1D.
Conclusions: Habitual intake of a dietary pattern that is characterized by an increased intake of added sugar and fats, such as in baked desserts may increase risks of atherosclerosis in T1D. Thus, dietary adjustments to improve this pattern may be atheroprotective.
A. Basu: None. A.C. Alman: None. J.K. Snell-Bergeon: None.
American Diabetes Association (7-13-CD-10 to J.K.S-B.)