Background: The relationship between changes in dairy product consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been evaluated.
Objective: We evaluated the association of 4-year changes in dairy product consumption with subsequent 4-year risk of T2D among U.S. men and women.
Methods: We followed-up 35,148 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2012), 78,357 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (1986-2012), and 82,937 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II (1991-2013). Diet was assessed using validated food frequency questionnaires every 4 years. Cox proportional regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for T2D associated with 4-year changes in dairy product consumption, with adjustment for initial dairy intake and multiple T2D risk factors including BMI and diet quality. Results of the 3 cohorts were pooled using an inverse variance-weighted, fixed-effect meta-analysis.
Results: During 2,849,389 person-years of follow-up, we documented 12,007 incident T2D cases. Changes in milk consumption during a 4-year period were not associated with T2D risk in the following 4 years. Increasing yogurt consumption by >0.5 serving/day was associated with a 13% (95% CI: 6%, 19%) lower risk of T2D compared with maintaining a stable consumption. Increasing cheese consumption by >0.5 serving/day was associated with an 8% (95% CI: 2%, 16%) higher risk of T2D. Substituting reduced-fat milk for whole milk or low-fat cheese for high-fat cheese was not associated with subsequent T2D risk. However, increasing intake of yogurt or reduced-fat milk by 1 serving/day and concomitantly decreasing cheese intake by 1 serving/day was associated with a 16% (95% CI: 10%, 22%) and 11% (95% CI: 7%, 15%) lower risk of T2D, respectively.
Conclusion: Increasing yogurt consumption was associated with a moderately lower risk of T2D, while increasing cheese consumption was associated with a moderately higher risk. Substituting yogurt or reduced-fat milk for cheese was associated with lower risk of T2D.
J. Drouin-Chartier: Other Relationship; Self; Dairy Farmers of Canada. Y. Li: None. A.V. Ardisson Korat: None. M. Ding: None. B. Lamarche: Advisory Panel; Self; Dairy Farmers of Canada. J.E. Manson: None. E. Rimm: Advisory Panel; Self; Take C/O, US Highbush Blueberry Council/USDA. W.C. Willett: None. F. Hu: None.
National Institutes of Health (UM1CA186107, UM1CA176726, UM1CA167552, DK112940, HL60712, HL118264); Canadian Institutes of Health Research (BPF-156628)