Studies directly comparing metabolic efficacy of various sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are scarce. To this end, we compared the effect of SGLT2i: Empagliflozin (EMP), Canagliflozin (CAN) and Dapagliflozin (DAP) on biometric, metabolic and hormonal parameters and insulin sensitivity in hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats (hHTG) - a non-obese model of metabolic syndrome characterized by dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and increased blood pressure. Male rats, 4 months old, were fed standard diet (C) or standard diet enriched by EMP (10mg/kg b.w./day), CAN (100mg/kg b.w./day) or DAP (10mg/kg b.w./day) for 6 weeks. All SGLT2i induced glycosuria which was 8-fold higher in CAN and DAP as compared to EMP group (Mean±SD: EMP:53±6; CAN:416±4; DAP:376±32 mmol/l; P<0.001). CAN decreased body weight relative to C while EMP and DAP had no significant effect. Visceral fat weight decreased in CAN and DAP compared to C (P<0.01). Relative weight of kidneys (g/100g b.w.) was increased in all SGLT2i groups compared to C with a less pronounced effect of EMP relative to CAN and DAP (P<0.01). CAN decreased both fasting and postprandial glycemia relative to other groups. Postprandial triglyceride levels were decreased by all SGLT2i compared to C (EMP: -32%; P<0.01; CAN: -55%; DAP -48%, P<0.001). 14C-palmitic acid oxidation decreased in the myocardium of CAN and DAP compared to C, whereas no significant effect of EMP was noted. CAN and EMP administration reduced liver glycogen content compared to C (P<0.05). Leptin levels decreased in CAN (-79%) and DAP (-56%) compared to C. GLP-1 levels increased in CAN compared to other groups while C-peptide was lower in CAN vs. C group.
In conclusion, our results suggest higher efficacy of CAN compared to DAP and EMP in improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing glucose levels in a non-obese model of metabolic syndrome. The differences could be related to higher SGLT1 inhibition activity of CAN.
J. Trnovska: None. M. Hüttl: None. I. Marková: None. O. Oliyarnyk: None. H. Malinska: None. D. Miklankova: None. H. Kratochvilova: None. P. Svoboda: None. A. Cinkajzlova: None. I. Lankova: None. M. Mraz: None. M. Haluzik: None.
MH CZ - DRO; Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine (IN00023001)