Background: There is an unmet need for accurate cost-effective estimation of future T1D risk.
Methods: We derived a combined T1D prediction model using 7883 children followed closely from birth for a median of 9 yr, considering T1D genetic risk score (GRS), family T1D history (FH), standard islet autoantibodies (IA), race, birth circumstances, early growth and nutrient status. T1D developed in 326.
Results: Machine learning and traditional methods (Cox models) performed equivalently as measured by time-dependent AUC ROC. Future T1D was accurately predicted by combining only 3 variables: GRS, FH and IA status. Accuracy of combined scores increased with age at scoring. By age 2, they were highly predictive for T1D in the next 5 years (AUC >0.91, 95% CI 0.88-0.95) (see X on Figure). A 2-yr-old with 2 IA, positive FH and high GRS (>12) would have T1D risk over the next 1, 3 and 5 years of 14% (8-19%), 36% (25-45%) and 51% (39%-61%) respectively. A 2-yr-old with 1 IA, no FH and moderate GRS (10-11) has T1D risk of 0.8% (0.6-1.2%), 2.6% (1.9-3.2%) and 4.3% (3.4%-5.2%) respectively. After newborn genetic screening, only simple venous sampling in routine healthcare settings is required.
Conclusion: This approach allows updated individual risk estimates by age, and in the future may enable release of low risk individuals from surveillance long after initial newborn screening for more cost-efficient population based pediatric T1D prediction.
L.A. Ferrat: None. K. Vehik: None. S.A. Sharp: None. Å. Lernmark: None. A. Ziegler: None. M. Rewers: None. J. She: None. J. Toppari: None. B. Akolkar: None. J. Krischer: None. M.N. Weedon: None. S.S. Rich: None. R.A. Oram: Other Relationship; Self; Randox Laboratories Ltd. W. Hagopian: Research Support; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; JDRF; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention