Background and Aims: Periodontal disease (PD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease in which inflammation in the periodontal tissues is stimulated by the long-term presence of the subgingival biofilm. Various studies have investigated the role of inflammatory mechanisms in the link between PD and diabetes (DM), relatively few have investigated relationships between the oral microbiota and DM. Thus, qualitative and quantitative analyses of biofilms in diabetic cases are important to find the exact association between them. Here our aim was to elucidate the role of the microbiome in PD and its association with type 1 diabetes (T1D).
Methods: Age matched individuals was selected. The cohort for plaque was stratified into 3 groups- those having T1D (n = 9), periodontal disease (PD) (n = 8) and both T1D and PD (DP) (n=11).
Results: Detailed analysis of the taxonomic differences revealed seven statistically significant genera and one phylum. The phylum of Firmicutes was significantly over expressed in PD group (p = 0.009). The genera of Abiotrophia, Actinomyces, Peptostreptococcusand Streptococcuswere over abundant in the PD group (p < 0.05). Similarly, Aggregatibacter was significantly over abundant in only T1D and Campylobacter in only DP. Comparison between T1D and PD also revealed Proteobacteriato be significantly abundant in T1D (p = 0.042) but not in PD samples. Also, culture-based biofilm study showed significant growth in periodontal cases with poorly controlled glycemia as compared to the T1D with good glycemic control and healthy controls. Biofilm forming bacteria was commonly isolated and identified from the oral sample by the standard bacteria culture and metagenome sequencing.
Conclusion: Our study enriches the understanding of oral microbiota and sheds light on the identification of certain microorganism and glycaemic control in the pathogenesis of PD in T1D, which may have implication in treatment and management of PD in T1D.
P. Chakraborty: None. S. Ghosh: None.
Department of Science & Technology, Government of India, West Bengal; Research Society for the Study of Diabetes in India