Background: It’s well known that maternal diabetes increases risk of obesity-adiposity and hyperglycemia in children. Few studies have explored the modifying influence of child’s lifestyle (nutrition and physical activity, PA). Intensive treatment of GDM have not shown any protection against adiposity in the child. We assessed the current lifestyle in offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM) 2-26 years after birth and investigated its association with obesity-adiposity and hyperglycemia.

Methods: We studied 200 ODM and 177 offspring of nondiabetic mothers (ONDM, age and gender matched). Anthropometry, body composition (DXA) and blood glucose (capillary in <10y, 1.75g/kg OGTT in >10y) were measured. Overweight + obesity was classified by international standards [IOTF (≤18y), WHO (>18y)], glucose intolerance (ADA 2014). Dietary intake was assessed using food frequency questionnaire (preceding 6 months) and PA by recording time and frequency of vigorous, moderate, and sedentary activities. We studied the influence of diet and activity on risks of obesity-adiposity and hyperglycemia.

Results: ODM consumed sweets, milk and milk products, vegetables and salads more frequently and cereals less frequently than ONDM. Frequent consumption of ‘healthy foods’ and infrequent consumption of ‘unhealthy foods’ were associated with decreased risk for obesity-adiposity. Higher level of moderate PA (>60min/day) and lower sedentary PA (<480 min/day) were associated with lower obesity-adiposity in both the groups. Hyperglycemia was not affected. These effects worked across both groups, there was no interaction with maternal diabetes.

Conclusions: Healthy lifestyle (food and activity) is protective against obesity-adiposity but not against hyperglycemia in young Indian children (both ODM and ONDM). Our results suggest a need for a formal lifestyle intervention in children born in diabetic pregnancies for reduction in obesity-adiposity and hyperglycemia.


S.S. Wagle: None. K. Kumaran: None. R. Ladkat: None. D. Bhat: None. R. Kamat: None. S. Wadke: None. M.K. Deshmukh: None. P.C. Yajnik: None. C.S. Yajnik: None.

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