Background and Aims: Sleep disturbances are common among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of sleep disorders in Greek diabetics and differences between an urban and semi-urban population.
Materials and Methods: The study population was comprised of 308 T2D patients [139 patients from Piraeus (urban population, group A) and 169 patients from Sitia (semi-urban population, group B)]. In all patients, quality of sleep was evaluated by administering the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) through an interview. The PSQI is a self-report questionnaire that assesses sleep quality and quantity over a month-long period.
Results: Mean PSQI score of group A was 11.22 ± 6.44 and 88.5% (n=123) of the participants had a PSQI score ≥5, indicating poor quality of sleep. Mean PSQI score of group B was 12.48 ± 5.85, and 88.8% (n=140) had a PSQI score ≥5. Incidence of a PSQI score ≥5 did not differ between the two groups (P=0.13). Logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for sex, BMI, presence of hypertension and dyslipidemia, smoking, diabetes complications, and oral antidiabetic treatment, showed that PSQI ≥5 in total sample population was associated with insulin treatment [odds ratio (OR): 0.03, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.31-0.99], and HbA1c (OR: 6.56, 95% CI: 1.93-16.14). In group A, poor sleep quality was associated with insulin treatment (OR: 0.02, 95% CI: 0.10-0.84), and HbA1c (OR: 7.55, 95% CI: 1.97-18.81). In group B, poor sleep quality was associated only with age (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.06-1.74).
Conclusion: Our study suggested that Greek patients with T2D have a high prevalence of sleep disorders with similar incidence for urban and semi-urban population. Insulin treatment and HbA1c were the greatest predictors of sleep disorders. Identifying sleep disorders in T2D and treating them early might improve patient's quality of life.
A. Papazafiropoulou: None. M. Stamatelatou: None. E. Xourgia: None. L. Mpoumi: None. E. Georgopoulos: None. G. Tziomalos: None. S. Solidaki: None. M. Dasenaki: None. A. Melidonis: None.