Community evidenced-based diabetes self-management education (DSME) models have not been examined for feasibility, acceptability or effectiveness among incarcerated persons transitioning to independent DSM. In a non-equivalent control group design with repeated measures, we examined the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effect of a 6-week 1-hour per week diabetes survival skills (DSS) intervention on diabetes knowledge, distress, self-efficacy and outcome expectancy for transitioning incarcerated males. Of the 92 participants (84% T2D, 83% using insulin, 40% black, 20% white,30% Latino, 66% high school or less, mean age 47.3 years, 84% length of incarceration ≤4 years), 41 completed the study (22 Control/19 intervention (TX). One-way repeated measures ANOVAs revealed significant changes in diabetes knowledge within each group (C, p=.002; TX, p=.027) at all time points; however, a two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed no differences between groups. Additionally, both groups showed improvement in diabetes-related distress and outcome expectancy with the treatment group experiencing greater and sustained improvement at the 12-week time point. Analysis of focus group data (Krippendorf) revealed acceptance of and enthusiasm for the DSS training and low literacy education materials, and the need for skill demonstration, and ongoing support throughout incarceration and before release. Our results highlight the complexity of working with incarcerated populations. We observed information-gathering strategies among incarcerated persons that may account for overall increases in diabetes knowledge. Due to high attrition, the power to detect effects was limited. Yet, results suggest that the intervention is feasible and acceptable with an increased sample size and refined recruitment procedure.
L.A. Reagan: None. R.A. Laguerre: None. C. Gallagher: None.
American Nurses Foundation